Neural SDEs for Robust and Explainable Analysis of Electromagnetic Unintended Radiated Emissions


In this paper, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the robustness and explainability of ResNet-like models in the context of Unintended Radiated Emission (URE) classification and suggest a new approach leveraging Neural Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) to address identified limitations. We provide an empirical demonstration of the fragility of ResNet-like models to Gaussian noise perturbations, where the model performance deteriorates sharply and its F1-score drops to near insignificance at 0.008 with a Gaussian noise of only 0.5 standard deviation. We also highlight a concerning discrepancy where the explanations provided by ResNet-like models do not reflect the inherent periodicity in the input data, a crucial attribute in URE detection from stable devices.In response to these findings, we propose a novel application of Neural SDEs to build models for URE classification that are not only robust to noise but also provide more meaningful and intuitive explanations. Neural SDE models maintain a high F1-score of 0.93 even when exposed to Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 0.5, demonstrating superior resilience to ResNet models. Neural SDE models successfully recover the time-invariant or periodic horizontal bands from the input data, a feature that was conspicuously missing in the explanations generated by ResNet-like models. This advancement presents a small but significant step in the development of robust and interpretable models for real-world URE applications where data is inherently noisy and assurance arguments demand interpretable machine learning predictions.

In IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM) 2023
Susmit Jha
Susmit Jha
Technical Director, NuSCI

My research interests include artificial intelligence, formal methods, machine learning and dynamical systems.